Bonifacio Day is a national public holiday every 30 November in the Philippines to celebrates the birthday of one of the country’s greatest heroes, Andrés Bonifacio.
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Born on 30 November 1863, Bonifacio is considered as the Father of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonisation. He, along with some others, started a movement known as the ‘Katipunan’ in 1892. The Katipunan was a secret revolutionary society that instigated military revolts against the Spanish colonisers.
Bonifacio became the Katipunan’s military leader and the president of the revolutionary government, which (according to some historians) makes Bonifacio the first president of the Philippine Republic. Bonifacio and the Katipunan recruited many citizens to their cause, eventually becoming the most prominent revolutionary force the Spaniards had to face.
However Bonifacio’s leadership was contested by some others, and in particular, Emilio Aguinaldo. After a series of leadership challenges and internal rifts, Aguinaldo violently took over the revolutionary forces and unjustly ordered Bonifacio to be tried and executed under the guise of treason.
Bonifacio Day is held every 30 November, or the Monday nearest this day to create a long weekend. Unlike the main national hero, José Rizal, Bonifacio Day is celebrated on his day of birth, rather than his day of death. This is because Bonifacio was killed by his fellow countrymen, rather than at the hands of foreign colonisers.